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Marilyn Monroe war eine US-amerikanische Filmschauspielerin und Sängerin, Fotomodel und Filmproduzentin. Sie wurde in den er Jahren zum Weltstar, ist heute eine Filmikone und gilt als archetypisches Sexsymbol des Jahrhunderts. Marilyn Monroe [ˈmæɹɪlɪn mənˈɹoʊ] (* 1. Juni in Los Angeles, Kalifornien, als Norma Jeane Mortenson, kirchlich registrierter Taufname Norma Jeane. Um Marilyn Monroes Tod ranken sich zahlreiche Verschwörungstheorien: Eine besagt, dass die Kennedys die Schauspielerin ermorden ließen, um. Marilyn Monroe, mit bürgerlichem Namen Norma Jeane Baker, wurde am 1. Juni in Los Angeles als Tochter der ledigen Filmcutterin Gladys Pearl. Marilyn Monroe war zu ihrer Zeit die bekannteste und meistfotografierte Frau der Welt. Foto: Getty Images | Alfred Eisenstaedt. Die Kameras.
Marilyn Monroe, mit bürgerlichem Namen Norma Jeane Baker, wurde am 1. Juni in Los Angeles als Tochter der ledigen Filmcutterin Gladys Pearl. Marilyn Monroe war eine US-amerikanische Filmschauspielerin und Sängerin, Fotomodel und Filmproduzentin. Sie wurde in den er Jahren zum Weltstar, ist heute eine Filmikone und gilt als archetypisches Sexsymbol des Jahrhunderts. Marilyn Monroe [ˈmæɹɪlɪn mənˈɹoʊ] (* 1. Juni in Los Angeles, Kalifornien, als Norma Jeane Mortenson, kirchlich registrierter Taufname Norma Jeane. Arthur Miller m. Archived from the original on August 25, September 3, Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society. She would go deep down within herself and find it and bring it just click for source into consciousness. Link January 21, The Smithsonian Institution has article source her on their list of " Most Significant Americans of All Time",  and both Variety and VH1 have placed her in the top ten in their rankings of the greatest popular culture icons of the twentieth century. Sarah Churchwell . American Film Institute. Brilliant, verführerisch, außergewöhnlich, Marilyn Monroe war das größte amerikanische Sexsymbol, ein Superstar mit magischer Ausstrahlung, so stark, daß sie. Marilyn Monroe - Biografie, Infos und Bilder - ProSieben - Keine andere Schauspielerin steht derart für den Glanz und Glamour, aber auch für die Schattenseiten. Das Leben der Schauspielerin Marilyn Monroe glich einem Hollywood Film. Der märchenhafte Aufstieg des Mädchens aus kleinen Verhältnissen zum. Marilyn Monroe war eine US-amerikanische Schauspielerin, die bis zu ihrem Tod im Jahr zu einem der größten Stars des Kinos wurde. Zuhause setzte Marilyn Monroe gerne auch auf mehr als nur Chanel Nr. 5 – nämlich auf Seidenpyjamas, Caprihosen und gelegentliche.
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Monroe was born and raised in Los Angeles. She spent most of her childhood in foster homes and an orphanage and married at age She was working in a factory as part of the war effort during World War II when she met a photographer from the First Motion Picture Unit and began a successful pin-up modeling career.
The work led to short-lived film contracts with 20th Century Fox and Columbia Pictures. After a series of minor film roles, she signed a new contract with Fox in late She faced a scandal when it was revealed that she had posed for nude photos before she became a star, but the story did not damage her career and instead resulted in increased interest in her films.
By , Monroe was one of the most marketable Hollywood stars; she had leading roles in the film noir Niagara , which focused on her sex appeal, and the comedies Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and How to Marry a Millionaire , which established her star image as a "dumb blonde".
The same year, her nude images were used as the centerfold and on the cover of the first issue of Playboy.
She played a significant role in the creation and management of her public image throughout her career, but she was disappointed when she was typecast and underpaid by the studio.
She was briefly suspended in early for refusing a film project but returned to star in The Seven Year Itch , one of the biggest box office successes of her career.
When the studio was still reluctant to change Monroe's contract, she founded her own film production company in She dedicated to building the company and began studying method acting at the Actors Studio.
In late , Fox awarded her a new contract, which gave her more control and a larger salary. Her subsequent roles included a critically acclaimed performance in Bus Stop and her first independent production in The Prince and the Showgirl Her last completed film was the drama The Misfits Monroe's troubled private life received much attention.
She struggled with addiction, depression, and anxiety. Her marriages to retired baseball star Joe DiMaggio and to playwright Arthur Miller were highly publicized, and both ended in divorce.
On August 4, , she died at age 36 from an overdose of barbiturates at her home in Los Angeles. Her death was ruled a probable suicide, although several conspiracy theories have been proposed in the decades following her death.
Although Gladys was mentally and financially unprepared for a child, Monroe's early childhood was stable and happy. In the summer of , Gladys bought a small house in Hollywood with a loan from the Home Owners' Loan Corporation and moved seven-year-old Monroe in with her.
In the next four years, Monroe's living situation changed often. For the first 16 months, she continued living with the Atkinsons, and was sexually abused during this time.
Monroe found a more permanent home in September , when she began living with Grace's aunt, Ana Lower, in Sawtelle.
In , the company that employed Doc Goddard relocated him to West Virginia. She found herself and Dougherty mismatched and later stated that she was "dying of boredom" during the marriage.
In April , Dougherty was shipped out to the Pacific , and he would remain there for most of the next two years.
As a model, Monroe occasionally used the name Jean Norman. Camera , Laff , and Peek. Through Snively, Monroe signed a contract with an acting agency in June Head executive Darryl F.
Zanuck was unenthusiastic about it,  but he gave her a standard six-month contract to avoid her being signed by rival studio RKO Pictures.
Monroe had no film roles during the first six months and instead dedicated her days to acting, singing and dancing classes.
Scudda Hay! Monroe was determined to make it as an actress, and continued studying at the Actors' Lab.
In October , she appeared as a blonde vamp in the play Glamour Preferred at the Bliss-Hayden Theater , but it ended after only a few performances.
Schenck , who persuaded his friend Harry Cohn , the head executive of Columbia Pictures , to sign her in March While at Fox, Monroe was given "girl next door" roles; at Columbia, she was modeled after Rita Hayworth.
Their relationship soon became sexual and he proposed marriage, but Monroe refused. She appeared in advertisements for Pabst beer and posed in artistic nudes for John Baumgarth calendars using the name 'Mona Monroe' ; both sessions were shot by Tom Kelley.
Although she then contained the resulting scandal by claiming she had reluctancly posed nude due to an urgent need for cash, biographers Spoto and Banner have stated that she was not pressured although according to Banner, she was initially hesitant due to her aspirations of movie stardom and regarded the shoot as simply another work assignment.
Monroe found herself at the center of a scandal in March , when she revealed that she had posed for nude pictures in , which were now featured in a calendar.
In the wake of the scandal, Monroe was featured on the cover of Life as the "Talk of Hollywood" and gossip columnist Hedda Hopper declared her the "cheesecake queen" turned "box office smash".
Despite her newfound popularity as a sex symbol, Monroe also wished to show more of her acting range.
She had begun taking acting classes with Michael Chekhov and mime Lotte Goslar soon after beginning the Fox contract,  and Clash by Night and Don't Bother to Knock showed her in more nuanced roles.
Monroe's three other films in continued with her typecasting in comic roles that focused on her sex appeal. In We're Not Married!
Henry's Full House , she had a minor role as a sex worker. During this period, Monroe gained a reputation for being difficult to work with, which would worsen as her career progressed.
She was often late or did not show up at all, did not remember her lines, and would demand several re-takes before she was satisfied with her performance.
Monroe starred in three movies that were released in and emerged as a major sex symbol and one of Hollywood's most bankable performers.
When Niagara was released in January , women's clubs protested it as immoral, but it proved popular with audiences.
While Niagara made Monroe a sex symbol and established her "look", her second film of , the satirical musical comedy Gentlemen Prefer Blondes , cemented her screen persona as a "dumb blonde".
Monroe's role was originally intended for Betty Grable , who had been 20th Century-Fox's most popular " blonde bombshell " in the s; Monroe was fast eclipsing her as a star who could appeal to both male and female audiences.
It was the second film ever released in CinemaScope , a widescreen format that Fox hoped would draw audiences back to theaters as television was beginning to cause losses to film studios.
Monroe had become one of 20th Century-Fox's biggest stars, but her contract had not changed since , meaning that she was paid far less than other stars of her stature and could not choose her projects.
Zanuck, who had a strong personal dislike of her and did not think she would earn the studio as much revenue in other types of roles.
This was front-page news, and Monroe immediately took action to counter negative publicity.
Marines over a four-day period. In April , Otto Preminger 's western River of No Return , the last film that Monroe had filmed prior to the suspension, was released.
She called it a " Z-grade cowboy movie in which the acting finished second to the scenery and the CinemaScope process", but it was popular with audiences.
In September , Monroe began filming Billy Wilder 's comedy The Seven Year Itch , starring opposite Tom Ewell as a woman who becomes the object of her married neighbor's sexual fantasies.
Although the film was shot in Hollywood, the studio decided to generate advance publicity by staging the filming of a scene in which Monroe is standing on a subway grate with the air blowing up the skirt of her white dress on Lexington Avenue in Manhattan.
The publicity stunt placed Monroe on international front pages, and it also marked the end of her marriage to DiMaggio, who was infuriated by it.
After filming for The Seven Year Itch wrapped up in November , Monroe left Hollywood for the East Coast, where she and photographer Milton Greene founded their own production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions MMP —an action that has later been called "instrumental" in the collapse of the studio system.
She took classes with Constance Collier and attended workshops on method acting at the Actors Studio , run by Lee Strasberg.
Monroe continued her relationship with DiMaggio despite the ongoing divorce process; she also dated actor Marlon Brando and playwright Arthur Miller.
By the end of the year, Monroe and Fox signed a new seven-year contract, as MMP would not be able to finance films alone, and the studio was eager to have Monroe working for them again.
Monroe began by announcing her win over 20th Century-Fox. In March, Monroe began filming the drama Bus Stop , her first film under the new contract.
For the role, she learned an Ozark accent , chose costumes and make-up that lacked the glamour of her earlier films, and provided deliberately mediocre singing and dancing.
Bus Stop was released in August and became critical and commercial success. Marilyn Monroe has finally proved herself an actress.
Monroe also experienced other problems during the production. Her dependence on pharmaceuticals escalated and, according to Spoto, she had a miscarriage.
After returning from England, Monroe took an month hiatus to concentrate on family life. In the end, Wilder was happy with Monroe's performance and stated: "Anyone can remember lines, but it takes a real artist to come on the set and not know her lines and yet give the performance she did!
The last film that Monroe completed was John Huston's The Misfits , which Miller had written to provide her with a dramatic role.
The filming in the Nevada desert between July and November was again difficult. It was the real thing. She would go deep down within herself and find it and bring it up into consciousness.
Monroe and Miller separated after filming wrapped, and she obtained a Mexican divorce in January Geoff Andrew of the British Film Institute has called it a classic,  Huston scholar Tony Tracy has described Monroe's performance the "most mature interpretation of her career",  and Geoffrey McNab of The Independent has praised her for being "extraordinary" in portraying the character's "power of empathy".
Monroe was next to star in a television adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham 's Rain for NBC , but the project fell through as the network did not want to hire her choice of director, Lee Strasberg.
She underwent a cholecystectomy and surgery for her endometriosis, and spent four weeks hospitalized for depression.
President " on stage at President John F. Monroe next filmed a scene for Something's Got to Give in which she swam naked in a swimming pool.
This was the first time that a major star had posed nude at the height of their career. Fox soon regretted its decision and re-opened negotiations with Monroe later in June; a settlement about a new contract, including re-commencing Something's Got to Give and a starring role in the black comedy What a Way to Go!
Her housekeeper Eunice Murray was staying overnight at the home on the evening of Saturday, August 4, She saw light from under Monroe's bedroom door, but was unable to get a response and found the door locked.
Murray then called Monroe's psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson , who arrived at the house shortly after and broke into the bedroom through a window, finding Monroe dead in her bed.
Monroe's sudden death was front-page news in the United States and Europe. In the following decades, several conspiracy theories , including murder and accidental overdose, have been introduced to contradict suicide as the cause of Monroe's death.
The s had been the heyday for actresses who were perceived as tough and smart—such as Katharine Hepburn and Barbara Stanwyck —who had appealed to women-dominated audiences during the war years.
From the beginning, Monroe played a significant part in the creation of her public image, and towards the end of her career exerted almost full control over it.
In her films, Monroe usually played "the girl", who is defined solely by her gender. In press stories, Monroe was portrayed as the embodiment of the American Dream , a girl who had risen from a miserable childhood to Hollywood stardom.
Although Monroe's screen persona as a dim-witted but sexually attractive blonde was a carefully crafted act, audiences and film critics believed it to be her real personality.
This became an obstacle when she wanted to pursue other kinds of roles, or to be respected as a businesswoman.
The biggest myth is that she was dumb. The second is that she was fragile. The third is that she couldn't act. She was far from dumb, although she was not formally educated, and she was very sensitive about that.
But she was very smart indeed—and very tough. She had to be both to beat the Hollywood studio system in the s.
Such a good actress that no one now believes she was anything but what she portrayed on screen.
Biographer Lois Banner has written that Monroe often subtly parodied her status as a sex symbol in her films and public appearances,  and that "the 'Marilyn Monroe' character she created was a brilliant archetype, who stands between Mae West and Madonna in the tradition of twentieth-century gender tricksters.
According to Dyer, Monroe became "virtually a household name for sex" in the s and "her image has to be situated in the flux of ideas about morality and sexuality that characterised the fifties in America", such as Freudian ideas about sex, the Kinsey report , and Betty Friedan 's The Feminine Mystique Dyer has also argued that Monroe's blonde hair became her defining feature because it made her "racially unambiguous" and exclusively white just as the civil rights movement was beginning, and that she should be seen as emblematic of racism in twentieth-century popular culture.
Monroe was perceived as a specifically American star, "a national institution as well known as hot dogs, apple pie, or baseball" according to Photoplay.
If America was to export the democracy of glamour into post-war, impoverished Europe, the movies could be its shop window Marilyn Monroe, with her all American attributes and streamlined sexuality, came to epitomise in a single image this complex interface of the economic, the political, and the erotic.
By the mid s, she stood for a brand of classless glamour, available to anyone using American cosmetics, nylons and peroxide. Twentieth Century-Fox further profited from Monroe's popularity by cultivating several lookalike actresses, such as Jayne Mansfield and Sheree North.
The Smithsonian Institution has included her on their list of " Most Significant Americans of All Time",  and both Variety and VH1 have placed her in the top ten in their rankings of the greatest popular culture icons of the twentieth century.
Hundreds of books have been written about Monroe. She has been the subject of films, plays, operas, and songs, and has influenced artists and entertainers such as Andy Warhol and Madonna.
Monroe's enduring popularity is linked to her conflicted public image. Due to the contrast between her stardom and troubled private life, Monroe is closely linked to broader discussions about modern phenomena such as mass media, fame, and consumer culture.
Monroe remains a cultural icon, but critics are divided on her legacy as an actress. David Thomson called her body of work "insubstantial"  and Pauline Kael wrote that she could not act, but rather "used her lack of an actress's skills to amuse the public.
She had the wit or crassness or desperation to turn cheesecake into acting—and vice versa; she did what others had the 'good taste' not to do".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Norma Jean disambiguation and Marilyn Monroe disambiguation. American actress, model, and singer.
Los Angeles, California , U. James Dougherty m. Joe DiMaggio m. Arthur Miller m. Up in front, there with the screen so big, a little kid all alone, and I loved it.
Monroe as a 20th Century-Fox contract player in She had two small film roles while under contract and was let go after a year.
Studio publicity photo. Monroe as Rose Loomis in the film noir Niagara , which dwelt on her sex appeal. Monroe and co-star Jane Russell after pressing their hands in wet concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theatre.
Main article: Death of Marilyn Monroe. I always thought symbols were those things you clash together! That's the trouble, a sex symbol becomes a thing.
I just hate to be a thing. But if I'm going to be a symbol of something I'd rather have it sex than some other things they've got symbols of.
Jean Negulesco Quigley Publishing, Billy Wilder Guinness World Records. How Stuff Works, How Stuff Works.
Joshua Logan The Marilyn Monroe Collection. Daily Mail, Tony Curtis: 'Marilyn Monroe carried my baby'. Londyn: Aurum, , s.
John Huston Marilyn Monroe: five best moments. Memolition, I don't want to live': Letters containing Marilyn Monroe's suicidal thoughts go up for auction.
Los Angeles Times, Marilyn Monroe's mortician reveals star was 'unrecognisable' as he speaks out.
Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade Publishing, , s. Wirtualna Polska, Time Inc.. The Guardian, The Healthy Home Economist, NYMAG, The Huffington Post, Onet Vumag, Danamo's Marilyn Monroe Pages ang.
Today I Found Out, Marilyn and Her Monsters. The Loves of Marilyn Monroe. But did Marilyn Monroe only love women?
Fifty years after her death, an author who met the star questions her sexual identity. The Sydney Morning Herald, Onet Sport, The Forward, Immortal Marilyn, W: The Daily Dose [on-line].
Marilyn Monroe Marries Arthur Miller. The Library of Congress. Smutny symbol seksu. Learnodo Newtonic, W: American Masters [on-line].
PBS, Smithsonian, Max Factor. Forbes Life, Forbes Life. Buzznet,